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// license:BSD-3-Clause
// copyright-holders:Aaron Giles, Vas Crabb
/***************************************************************************

    render.h

    Core rendering routines for MAME.

****************************************************************************

    Theory of operation
    -------------------

    A render "target" is described by 5 parameters:

        - width = width, in pixels
        - height = height, in pixels
        - bpp = depth, in bits per pixel
        - orientation = orientation of the target
        - pixel_aspect = aspect ratio of the pixels

    Width, height, and bpp are self-explanatory. The remaining parameters
    need some additional explanation.

    Regarding orientation, there are three orientations that need to be
    dealt with: target orientation, UI orientation, and game orientation.
    In the current model, the UI orientation tracks the target orientation
    so that the UI is (in theory) facing the correct direction. The game
    orientation is specified by the game driver and indicates how the
    game and artwork are rotated.

    Regarding pixel_aspect, this is the aspect ratio of the individual
    pixels, not the aspect ratio of the screen. You can determine this by
    dividing the aspect ratio of the screen by the aspect ratio of the
    resolution. For example, a 4:3 screen displaying 640x480 gives a
    pixel aspect ratio of (4/3)/(640/480) = 1.0, meaning the pixels are
    square. That same screen displaying 1280x1024 would have a pixel
    aspect ratio of (4/3)/(1280/1024) = 1.06666, meaning the pixels are
    slightly wider than they are tall.

    Artwork is always assumed to be a 1.0 pixel aspect ratio. The game
    screens themselves can be variable aspect ratios.

***************************************************************************/

#ifndef MAME_EMU_RENDER_H
#define MAME_EMU_RENDER_H

#include "screen.h"

#include <math.h>
#include <array>
#include <map>
#include <memory>
#include <mutex>
#include <string>
#include <unordered_map>
#include <vector>


namespace emu { namespace render { namespace detail { class layout_environment; } } }


//**************************************************************************
//  CONSTANTS
//**************************************************************************

// blending modes
enum
{
	BLENDMODE_NONE = 0,                                 // no blending
	BLENDMODE_ALPHA,                                    // standard alpha blend
	BLENDMODE_RGB_MULTIPLY,                             // apply source alpha to source pix, then multiply RGB values
	BLENDMODE_ADD,                                      // apply source alpha to source pix, then add to destination

	BLENDMODE_COUNT
};


// render creation flags
constexpr u8 RENDER_CREATE_NO_ART       = 0x01;         // ignore any views that have art in them
constexpr u8 RENDER_CREATE_SINGLE_FILE  = 0x02;         // only load views from the file specified
constexpr u8 RENDER_CREATE_HIDDEN       = 0x04;         // don't make this target visible

// render scaling modes
enum
{
	SCALE_FRACTIONAL = 0,                               // compute fractional scaling factors for both axes
	SCALE_FRACTIONAL_X,                                 // compute fractional scaling factor for x-axis, and integer factor for y-axis
	SCALE_FRACTIONAL_Y,                                 // compute fractional scaling factor for y-axis, and integer factor for x-axis
	SCALE_FRACTIONAL_AUTO,                              // automatically compute fractional scaling for x/y-axes based on source native orientation
	SCALE_INTEGER                                       // compute integer scaling factors for both axes, based on target dimensions
};

// flags for primitives
constexpr int PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT_SHIFT = 0;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT_MASK = 15 << PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT_SHIFT = 4;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT_MASK = 15 << PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE_SHIFT = 8;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE_MASK = 15 << PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS_SHIFT = 12;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS_MASK = 1 << PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS_SHIFT;
constexpr int PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX_SHIFT = 13;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX_MASK = 1 << PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP_SHIFT = 14;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP_MASK = 1 << PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE_SHIFT = 15;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE_MASK = 3 << PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_VECTOR_SHIFT = 17;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_VECTOR_MASK = 1 << PRIMFLAG_VECTOR_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF_SHIFT = 18;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF_MASK = 1 << PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_TYPE_SHIFT = 19;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TYPE_MASK = 3 << PRIMFLAG_TYPE_SHIFT;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TYPE_LINE = 0 << PRIMFLAG_TYPE_SHIFT;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TYPE_QUAD = 1 << PRIMFLAG_TYPE_SHIFT;

constexpr int PRIMFLAG_PACKABLE_SHIFT = 21;
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_PACKABLE = 1 << PRIMFLAG_PACKABLE_SHIFT;

//**************************************************************************
//  MACROS
//**************************************************************************

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT(u32 x)     { return x << PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_TEXORIENT(u32 x) { return (x & PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_TEXORIENT_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT(u32 x)     { return x << PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_TEXFORMAT(u32 x) { return (x & PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_TEXFORMAT_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE(u32 x)     { return x << PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_BLENDMODE(u32 x) { return (x & PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_BLENDMODE_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS(u32 x)     { return x << PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_ANTIALIAS(u32 x) { return (x & PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_ANTIALIAS_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX(u32 x)     { return x << PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_SCREENTEX(u32 x) { return (x & PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_SCREENTEX_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP(u32 x)       { return x << PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_TEXWRAP(u32 x)   { return (x & PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_TEXWRAP_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE(u32 x)      { return x << PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_TEXSHADE(u32 x)  { return (x & PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_TEXSHADE_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_VECTOR(u32 x)        { return x << PRIMFLAG_VECTOR_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_VECTOR(u32 x)    { return (x & PRIMFLAG_VECTOR_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_VECTOR_SHIFT; }

constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF(u32 x)     { return x << PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF_SHIFT; }
constexpr u32 PRIMFLAG_GET_VECTORBUF(u32 x) { return (x & PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF_MASK) >> PRIMFLAG_VECTORBUF_SHIFT; }


//**************************************************************************
//  TYPE DEFINITIONS
//**************************************************************************

// texture scaling callback
typedef void (*texture_scaler_func)(bitmap_argb32 &dest, bitmap_argb32 &source, const rectangle &sbounds, void *param);

// render_bounds - floating point bounding rectangle
struct render_bounds
{
	float               x0;                 // leftmost X coordinate
	float               y0;                 // topmost Y coordinate
	float               x1;                 // rightmost X coordinate
	float               y1;                 // bottommost Y coordinate

	constexpr float width() const { return x1 - x0; }
	constexpr float height() const { return y1 - y0; }
};


// render_color - floating point set of ARGB values
struct render_color
{
	float               a;                  // alpha component (0.0 = transparent, 1.0 = opaque)
	float               r;                  // red component (0.0 = none, 1.0 = max)
	float               g;                  // green component (0.0 = none, 1.0 = max)
	float               b;                  // blue component (0.0 = none, 1.0 = max)
};


// render_texuv - floating point set of UV texture coordinates
struct render_texuv
{
	float               u;                  // U coordinate (0.0-1.0)
	float               v;                  // V coordinate (0.0-1.0)
};


// render_quad_texuv - floating point set of UV texture coordinates
struct render_quad_texuv
{
	render_texuv        tl;                 // top-left UV coordinate
	render_texuv        tr;                 // top-right UV coordinate
	render_texuv        bl;                 // bottom-left UV coordinate
	render_texuv        br;                 // bottom-right UV coordinate
};


// render_texinfo - texture information
struct render_texinfo
{
	void *              base;               // base of the data
	u32                 rowpixels;          // pixels per row
	u32                 width;              // width of the image
	u32                 height;             // height of the image
	u32                 seqid;              // sequence ID
	u64                 unique_id;			// unique identifier to pass to osd
	u64					old_id;				// previously allocated id, if applicable
	const rgb_t *       palette;            // palette for PALETTE16 textures, bcg lookup table for RGB32/YUY16
};


// ======================> render_screen_list

// a render_screen_list is a list of screen_devices
class render_screen_list
{
	// screen list item
	class item
	{
		friend class simple_list<item>;
		friend class render_screen_list;

	public:
		// construction/destruction
		item(screen_device &screen) : m_screen(screen) { }

		// state
		item *              m_next = nullptr;   // next screen in list
		screen_device &     m_screen;           // reference to screen device
	};

public:
	// getters
	int count() const { return m_list.count(); }

	// operations
	void add(screen_device &screen) { m_list.append(*global_alloc(item(screen))); }
	void reset() { m_list.reset(); }

	// query
	int contains(screen_device &screen) const
	{
		int count = 0;
		for (item *curitem = m_list.first(); curitem; curitem = curitem->m_next)
			if (&curitem->m_screen == &screen) count++;
		return count;
	}

private:
	// internal state
	simple_list<item> m_list;
};


// ======================> render_layer_config

// render_layer_config - describes the state of layers
class render_layer_config
{
private:
	static constexpr u8 ENABLE_BACKDROP          = 0x01; // enable backdrop layers
	static constexpr u8 ENABLE_OVERLAY           = 0x02; // enable overlay layers
	static constexpr u8 ENABLE_BEZEL             = 0x04; // enable bezel layers
	static constexpr u8 ENABLE_CPANEL            = 0x08; // enable cpanel layers
	static constexpr u8 ENABLE_MARQUEE           = 0x10; // enable marquee layers
	static constexpr u8 ZOOM_TO_SCREEN           = 0x20; // zoom to screen area by default
	static constexpr u8 ENABLE_SCREEN_OVERLAY    = 0x40; // enable screen overlays
	static constexpr u8 DEFAULT = ENABLE_BACKDROP | ENABLE_OVERLAY | ENABLE_BEZEL | ENABLE_CPANEL | ENABLE_MARQUEE | ENABLE_SCREEN_OVERLAY;

	u8               m_state = DEFAULT;

	render_layer_config &set_flag(u8 flag, bool enable)
	{
		if (enable) m_state |= flag;
		else m_state &= ~flag;
		return *this;
	}

public:
	constexpr render_layer_config() { }

	bool operator==(const render_layer_config &rhs) const { return m_state == rhs.m_state; }
	bool operator!=(const render_layer_config &rhs) const { return m_state != rhs.m_state; }

	constexpr bool backdrops_enabled() const        { return (m_state & ENABLE_BACKDROP) != 0; }
	constexpr bool overlays_enabled() const         { return (m_state & ENABLE_OVERLAY) != 0; }
	constexpr bool bezels_enabled() const           { return (m_state & ENABLE_BEZEL) != 0; }
	constexpr bool cpanels_enabled() const          { return (m_state & ENABLE_CPANEL) != 0; }
	constexpr bool marquees_enabled() const         { return (m_state & ENABLE_MARQUEE) != 0; }
	constexpr bool screen_overlay_enabled() const   { return (m_state & ENABLE_SCREEN_OVERLAY) != 0; }
	constexpr bool zoom_to_screen() const           { return (m_state & ZOOM_TO_SCREEN) != 0; }

	render_layer_config &set_backdrops_enabled(bool enable)         { return set_flag(ENABLE_BACKDROP, enable); }
	render_layer_config &set_overlays_enabled(bool enable)          { return set_flag(ENABLE_OVERLAY, enable); }
	render_layer_config &set_bezels_enabled(bool enable)            { return set_flag(ENABLE_BEZEL, enable); }
	render_layer_config &set_cpanels_enabled(bool enable)           { return set_flag(ENABLE_CPANEL, enable); }
	render_layer_config &set_marquees_enabled(bool enable)          { return set_flag(ENABLE_MARQUEE, enable); }
	render_layer_config &set_screen_overlay_enabled(bool enable)    { return set_flag(ENABLE_SCREEN_OVERLAY, enable); }
	render_layer_config &set_zoom_to_screen(bool zoom)              { return set_flag(ZOOM_TO_SCREEN, zoom); }
};


// ======================> render_primitive

// render_primitive - a single low-level primitive for the rendering engine
class render_primitive
{
	friend class simple_list<render_primitive>;

public:
	render_primitive() { }

	// render primitive types
	enum primitive_type
	{
		INVALID = 0,                        // invalid type
		LINE,                               // a single line
		QUAD                                // a rectilinear quad
	};

	// getters
	render_primitive *next() const { return m_next; }
	bool packable(const s32 pack_size) const { return (flags & PRIMFLAG_PACKABLE) && texture.base != nullptr && texture.width <= pack_size && texture.height <= pack_size; }
	float get_quad_width() const { return fabsf(bounds.x1 - bounds.x0); }
	float get_quad_height() const { return fabsf(bounds.y1 - bounds.y0); }
	float get_full_quad_width() const { return fabsf(full_bounds.x1 - full_bounds.x0); }
	float get_full_quad_height() const { return fabsf(full_bounds.y1 - full_bounds.y0); }

	// reset to prepare for re-use
	void reset();

	// public state
	primitive_type      type = INVALID;     // type of primitive
	render_bounds       bounds;             // bounds or positions
	render_bounds       full_bounds;        // bounds or positions (unclipped)
	render_color        color;              // RGBA values
	u32                 flags = 0U;         // flags
	float               width = 0.0F;       // width (for line primitives)
	render_texinfo      texture;            // texture info (for quad primitives)
	render_quad_texuv   texcoords;          // texture coordinates (for quad primitives)
	render_container *  container = nullptr;// the render container we belong to

private:
	// internal state
	render_primitive *  m_next = nullptr;   // pointer to next element
};


// ======================> render_primitive_list

// render_primitive_list - an object containing a list head plus a lock
class render_primitive_list
{
	friend class render_target;

	// construction/destruction
	render_primitive_list();
	~render_primitive_list();

public:
	// getters
	render_primitive *first() const { return m_primlist.first(); }

	// range iterators
	using auto_iterator = simple_list<render_primitive>::auto_iterator;
	auto_iterator begin() const { return m_primlist.begin(); }
	auto_iterator end() const { return m_primlist.end(); }

	// lock management
	void acquire_lock() { m_lock.lock(); }
	void release_lock() { m_lock.unlock(); }

	// reference management
	void add_reference(void *refptr);
	bool has_reference(void *refptr) const;

private:
	// helpers for our friends to manipulate the list
	render_primitive *alloc(render_primitive::primitive_type type);
	void release_all();
	void append(render_primitive &prim) { append_or_return(prim, false); }
	void append_or_return(render_primitive &prim, bool clipped);

	// a reference is an abstract reference to an internal object of some sort
	class reference
	{
	public:
		reference *next() const { return m_next; }
		reference *         m_next;             // link to the next reference
		void *              m_refptr;           // reference pointer
	};

	// internal state
	simple_list<render_primitive> m_primlist;               // list of primitives
	simple_list<reference> m_reflist;                       // list of references

	fixed_allocator<render_primitive> m_primitive_allocator;// allocator for primitives
	fixed_allocator<reference> m_reference_allocator;       // allocator for references

	std::recursive_mutex     m_lock;                             // lock to protect list accesses
};


// ======================> render_texture

// a render_texture is used to track transformations when building an object list
class render_texture
{
	friend resource_pool_object<render_texture>::~resource_pool_object();
	friend class simple_list<render_texture>;
	friend class fixed_allocator<render_texture>;
	friend class render_manager;
	friend class render_target;

	// construction/destruction
	render_texture();
	~render_texture();

	// reset before re-use
	void reset(render_manager &manager, texture_scaler_func scaler = nullptr, void *param = nullptr);

	// release resources when freed
	void release();

public:
	// getters
	int format() const { return m_format; }
	render_manager *manager() const { return m_manager; }

	// configure the texture bitmap
	void set_bitmap(bitmap_t &bitmap, const rectangle &sbounds, texture_format format);

	// set a unique identifier
	void set_id(u64 id) { m_old_id = m_id; m_id = id; }

	// generic high-quality bitmap scaler
	static void hq_scale(bitmap_argb32 &dest, bitmap_argb32 &source, const rectangle &sbounds, void *param);

private:
	// internal helpers
	void get_scaled(u32 dwidth, u32 dheight, render_texinfo &texinfo, render_primitive_list &primlist, u32 flags = 0);
	const rgb_t *get_adjusted_palette(render_container &container);

	static const int MAX_TEXTURE_SCALES = 16;

	// a scaled_texture contains a single scaled entry for a texture
	struct scaled_texture
	{
		bitmap_argb32 *     bitmap;                 // final bitmap
		u32                 seqid;                  // sequence number
	};

	// internal state
	render_manager *    m_manager;                  // reference to our manager
	render_texture *    m_next;                     // next texture (for free list)
	bitmap_t *          m_bitmap;                   // pointer to the original bitmap
	rectangle           m_sbounds;                  // source bounds within the bitmap
	texture_format      m_format;                   // format of the texture data
	u64                 m_id;                  		// unique id to pass to osd
	u64					m_old_id;					// previous id, if applicable

	// scaling state (ARGB32 only)
	texture_scaler_func m_scaler;                   // scaling callback
	void *              m_param;                    // scaling callback parameter
	u32                 m_curseq;                   // current sequence number
	scaled_texture      m_scaled[MAX_TEXTURE_SCALES];// array of scaled variants of this texture
};


// ======================> render_container

// a render_container holds a list of items and an orientation for the entire collection
class render_container
{
	friend resource_pool_object<render_container>::~resource_pool_object();
	friend class simple_list<render_container>;
	friend class render_manager;
	friend class render_target;

	// construction/destruction
	render_container(render_manager &manager, screen_device *screen = nullptr);
	~render_container();

public:
	// user settings describes the collected user-controllable settings
	struct user_settings
	{
		// construction/destruction
		user_settings();

		// public state
		int                 m_orientation;      // orientation
		float               m_brightness;       // brightness
		float               m_contrast;         // contrast
		float               m_gamma;            // gamma
		float               m_xscale;           // horizontal scale factor
		float               m_yscale;           // vertical scale factor
		float               m_xoffset;          // horizontal offset
		float               m_yoffset;          // vertical offset
	};

	// getters
	render_container *next() const { return m_next; }
	screen_device *screen() const { return m_screen; }
	render_manager &manager() const { return m_manager; }
	render_texture *overlay() const { return m_overlaytexture; }
	int orientation() const { return m_user.m_orientation; }
	float xscale() const { return m_user.m_xscale; }
	float yscale() const { return m_user.m_yscale; }
	float xoffset() const { return m_user.m_xoffset; }
	float yoffset() const { return m_user.m_yoffset; }
	bool is_empty() const { return (m_itemlist.count() == 0); }
	void get_user_settings(user_settings &settings) const { settings = m_user; }

	// setters
	void set_overlay(bitmap_argb32 *bitmap);
	void set_user_settings(const user_settings &settings);

	// empty the item list
	void empty() { m_item_allocator.reclaim_all(m_itemlist); }

	// add items to the list
	void add_line(float x0, float y0, float x1, float y1, float width, rgb_t argb, u32 flags);
	void add_quad(float x0, float y0, float x1, float y1, rgb_t argb, render_texture *texture, u32 flags);
	void add_char(float x0, float y0, float height, float aspect, rgb_t argb, render_font &font, u16 ch);
	void add_point(float x0, float y0, float diameter, rgb_t argb, u32 flags) { add_line(x0, y0, x0, y0, diameter, argb, flags); }
	void add_rect(float x0, float y0, float x1, float y1, rgb_t argb, u32 flags) { add_quad(x0, y0, x1, y1, argb, nullptr, flags); }

	// brightness/contrast/gamma helpers
	bool has_brightness_contrast_gamma_changes() const { return (m_user.m_brightness != 1.0f || m_user.m_contrast != 1.0f || m_user.m_gamma != 1.0f); }
	u8 apply_brightness_contrast_gamma(u8 value);
	float apply_brightness_contrast_gamma_fp(float value);
	const rgb_t *bcg_lookup_table(int texformat, palette_t *palette = nullptr);

private:
	// an item describes a high level primitive that is added to a container
	class item
	{
		friend class render_container;
		friend class simple_list<item>;

	public:
		item() : m_next(nullptr), m_type(0), m_flags(0), m_internal(0), m_width(0), m_texture(nullptr) { }

		// getters
		item *next() const { return m_next; }
		u8 type() const { return m_type; }
		const render_bounds &bounds() const { return m_bounds; }
		const render_color &color() const { return m_color; }
		u32 flags() const { return m_flags; }
		u32 internal() const { return m_internal; }
		float width() const { return m_width; }
		render_texture *texture() const { return m_texture; }

	private:
		// internal state
		item *              m_next;             // pointer to the next element in the list
		u8                  m_type;             // type of element
		render_bounds       m_bounds;           // bounds of the element
		render_color        m_color;            // RGBA factors
		u32                 m_flags;            // option flags
		u32                 m_internal;         // internal flags
		float               m_width;            // width of the line (lines only)
		render_texture *    m_texture;          // pointer to the source texture (quads only)
	};

	// generic screen overlay scaler
	static void overlay_scale(bitmap_argb32 &dest, bitmap_argb32 &source, const rectangle &sbounds, void *param);

	// internal helpers
	const simple_list<item> &items() const { return m_itemlist; }
	item &add_generic(u8 type, float x0, float y0, float x1, float y1, rgb_t argb);
	void recompute_lookups();
	void update_palette();

	// internal state
	render_container *      m_next;                 // the next container in the list
	render_manager &        m_manager;              // reference back to the owning manager
	simple_list<item>       m_itemlist;             // head of the item list
	fixed_allocator<item>   m_item_allocator;       // free container items
	screen_device *         m_screen;               // the screen device
	user_settings           m_user;                 // user settings
	bitmap_argb32 *         m_overlaybitmap;        // overlay bitmap
	render_texture *        m_overlaytexture;       // overlay texture
	std::unique_ptr<palette_client> m_palclient;    // client to the screen palette
	std::vector<rgb_t>      m_bcglookup;            // copy of screen palette with bcg adjustment
	rgb_t                   m_bcglookup256[0x400];  // lookup table for brightness/contrast/gamma
};



//**************************************************************************
//  CONSTANTS
//**************************************************************************

enum item_layer
{
	ITEM_LAYER_FIRST = 0,
	ITEM_LAYER_BACKDROP = ITEM_LAYER_FIRST,
	ITEM_LAYER_SCREEN,
	ITEM_LAYER_OVERLAY,
	ITEM_LAYER_BEZEL,
	ITEM_LAYER_CPANEL,
	ITEM_LAYER_MARQUEE,
	ITEM_LAYER_MAX
};
DECLARE_ENUM_INCDEC_OPERATORS(item_layer)



//**************************************************************************
//  TYPE DEFINITIONS
//**************************************************************************


/// \brief A description of a piece of visible artwork
///
/// Most view_items (except for those in the screen layer) have exactly
/// one layout_element which describes the contents of the item.
/// Elements are separate from items because they can be re-used
/// multiple times within a layout.  Even though an element can contain
/// a number of components, they are treated as if they were a single
/// bitmap.
class layout_element
{
public:
	using environment = emu::render::detail::layout_environment;

	// construction/destruction
	layout_element(environment &env, util::xml::data_node const &elemnode, const char *dirname);
	virtual ~layout_element();

	// getters
	running_machine &machine() const { return m_machine; }
	int default_state() const { return m_defstate; }
	int maxstate() const { return m_maxstate; }
	render_texture *state_texture(int state);

private:
	/// \brief An image, rectangle, or disk in an element
	///
	/// Each layout_element contains one or more components. Each
	/// component can describe either an image or a rectangle/disk
	/// primitive. Each component also has a "state" associated with it,
	/// which controls whether or not the component is visible (if the
	/// owning item has the same state, it is visible).
	class component
	{
	public:
		typedef std::unique_ptr<component> ptr;

		// construction/destruction
		component(environment &env, util::xml::data_node const &compnode, const char *dirname);
		virtual ~component() = default;

		// setup
		void normalize_bounds(float xoffs, float yoffs, float xscale, float yscale);

		// getters
		int state() const { return m_state; }
		virtual int maxstate() const { return m_state; }
		const render_bounds &bounds() const { return m_bounds; }
		const render_color &color() const { return m_color; }

		// operations
		virtual void draw(running_machine &machine, bitmap_argb32 &dest, const rectangle &bounds, int state) = 0;

	protected:
		// helpers
		void draw_text(render_font &font, bitmap_argb32 &dest, const rectangle &bounds, const char *str, int align);
		void draw_segment_horizontal_caps(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int minx, int maxx, int midy, int width, int caps, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_horizontal(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int minx, int maxx, int midy, int width, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_vertical_caps(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int miny, int maxy, int midx, int width, int caps, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_vertical(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int miny, int maxy, int midx, int width, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_diagonal_1(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int minx, int maxx, int miny, int maxy, int width, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_diagonal_2(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int minx, int maxx, int miny, int maxy, int width, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_decimal(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int midx, int midy, int width, rgb_t color);
		void draw_segment_comma(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int minx, int maxx, int miny, int maxy, int width, rgb_t color);
		void apply_skew(bitmap_argb32 &dest, int skewwidth);

	private:
		// internal state
		int                 m_state;                    // state where this component is visible (-1 means all states)
		render_bounds       m_bounds;                   // bounds of the element
		render_color        m_color;                    // color of the element
	};

	// component implementations
	class image_component;
	class rect_component;
	class disk_component;
	class text_component;
	class led7seg_component;
	class led8seg_gts1_component;
	class led14seg_component;
	class led16seg_component;
	class led14segsc_component;
	class led16segsc_component;
	class dotmatrix_component;
	class simplecounter_component;
	class reel_component;

	// a texture encapsulates a texture for a given element in a given state
	class texture
	{
	public:
		texture();
		texture(texture const &that) = delete;
		texture(texture &&that);

		~texture();

		texture &operator=(texture const &that) = delete;
		texture &operator=(texture &&that);

		layout_element *    m_element;      // pointer back to the element
		render_texture *    m_texture;      // texture for this state
		int                 m_state;        // associated state number
	};

	typedef component::ptr (*make_component_func)(environment &env, util::xml::data_node const &compnode, const char *dirname);
	typedef std::map<std::string, make_component_func> make_component_map;

	// internal helpers
	static void element_scale(bitmap_argb32 &dest, bitmap_argb32 &source, const rectangle &sbounds, void *param);
	template <typename T> static component::ptr make_component(environment &env, util::xml::data_node const &compnode, const char *dirname);
	template <int D> static component::ptr make_dotmatrix_component(environment &env, util::xml::data_node const &compnode, const char *dirname);

	static make_component_map const s_make_component; // maps component XML names to creator functions

	// internal state
	running_machine &           m_machine;      // reference to the owning machine
	std::vector<component::ptr> m_complist;     // list of components
	int                         m_defstate;     // default state of this element
	int                         m_maxstate;     // maximum state value for all components
	std::vector<texture>        m_elemtex;      // array of element textures used for managing the scaled bitmaps
};


/// \brief A reusable group of elements
///
/// Views expand/flatten groups into their component elements applying
/// an optional coordinate transform.  This is mainly useful duplicating
/// the same sublayout in multiple views.  It would be more useful
/// within a view if it could be parameterised.  Groups only exist while
/// parsing a layout file - no information about element grouping is
/// preserved.
class layout_group
{
public:
	using environment = emu::render::detail::layout_environment;
	using group_map = std::unordered_map<std::string, layout_group>;
	using transform = std::array<std::array<float, 3>, 3>;

	layout_group(util::xml::data_node const &groupnode);
	~layout_group();

	util::xml::data_node const &get_groupnode() const { return m_groupnode; }

	transform make_transform(int orientation, render_bounds const &dest) const;
	transform make_transform(int orientation, transform const &trans) const;
	transform make_transform(int orientation, render_bounds const &dest, transform const &trans) const;

	void set_bounds_unresolved();
	void resolve_bounds(environment &env, group_map &groupmap);

private:
	void resolve_bounds(environment &env, group_map &groupmap, std::vector<layout_group const *> &seen);
	void resolve_bounds(
			environment &env,
			util::xml::data_node const &parentnode,
			group_map &groupmap,
			std::vector<layout_group const *> &seen,
			bool repeat,
			bool init);

	util::xml::data_node const &    m_groupnode;
	render_bounds                   m_bounds;
	bool                            m_bounds_resolved;
};


/// \brief A single view within a layout_file
///
/// The view is described using arbitrary coordinates that are scaled to
/// fit within the render target.  Pixels within a view are assumed to
/// be square.
class layout_view
{
public:
	using environment = emu::render::detail::layout_environment;
	using element_map = std::unordered_map<std::string, layout_element>;
	using group_map = std::unordered_map<std::string, layout_group>;

	/// \brief A single backdrop/screen/overlay/bezel/cpanel/marquee item
	///
	/// Each view has four lists of view_items, one for each "layer."
	/// Each view item is specified using floating point coordinates in
	/// arbitrary units, and is assumed to have square pixels.  Each
	/// view item can control its orientation independently. Each item
	/// can also have an optional name, and can be set at runtime into
	/// different "states", which control how the embedded elements are
	/// displayed.
	class item
	{
		friend class layout_view;

	public:
		// construction/destruction
		item(
				environment &env,
				util::xml::data_node const &itemnode,
				element_map &elemmap,
				int orientation,
				layout_group::transform const &trans,
				render_color const &color);
		~item();

		// getters
		layout_element *element() const { return m_element; }
		screen_device *screen() { return m_screen; }
		const render_bounds &bounds() const { return m_bounds; }
		const render_color &color() const { return m_color; }
		int orientation() const { return m_orientation; }
		render_container *screen_container(running_machine &machine) const;
		bool has_input() const { return !m_input_tag.empty(); }
		ioport_port *input_tag_and_mask(ioport_value &mask) const { mask = m_input_mask; return m_input_port; };

		// fetch state based on configured source
		int state() const;

		// resolve tags, if any
		void resolve_tags();

	private:
		// internal state
		layout_element *    m_element;          // pointer to the associated element (non-screens only)
		output_finder<>     m_output;           // associated output
		bool const          m_have_output;      // whether we actually have an output
		std::string         m_input_tag;        // input tag of this item
		ioport_port *       m_input_port;       // input port of this item
		ioport_value        m_input_mask;       // input mask of this item
		screen_device *     m_screen;           // pointer to screen
		int                 m_orientation;      // orientation of this item
		render_bounds       m_bounds;           // bounds of the item
		render_bounds       m_rawbounds;        // raw (original) bounds of the item
		render_color        m_color;            // color of the item
	};
	using item_list = std::list<item>;

	// construction/destruction
	layout_view(
			environment &env,
			util::xml::data_node const &viewnode,
			element_map &elemmap,
			group_map &groupmap);
	~layout_view();

	// getters
	item_list &items(item_layer layer);
	const std::string &name() const { return m_name; }
	const render_bounds &bounds() const { return m_bounds; }
	const render_bounds &screen_bounds() const { return m_scrbounds; }
	const render_screen_list &screens() const { return m_screens; }
	bool layer_enabled(item_layer layer) const { return m_layenabled[layer]; }

	//
	bool has_art() const { return !m_backdrop_list.empty() || !m_overlay_list.empty() || !m_bezel_list.empty() || !m_cpanel_list.empty() || !m_marquee_list.empty(); }
	float effective_aspect(render_layer_config config) const { return (config.zoom_to_screen() && m_screens.count() != 0) ? m_scraspect : m_aspect; }

	// operations
	void recompute(render_layer_config layerconfig);

	// resolve tags, if any
	void resolve_tags();

private:
	// add items, recursing for groups
	void add_items(
			environment &env,
			util::xml::data_node const &parentnode,
			element_map &elemmap,
			group_map &groupmap,
			int orientation,
			layout_group::transform const &trans,
			render_color const &color,
			bool root,
			bool repeat,
			bool init);

	static std::string make_name(environment &env, util::xml::data_node const &viewnode);

	// internal state
	std::string         m_name;             // name of the layout
	float               m_aspect;           // X/Y of the layout
	float               m_scraspect;        // X/Y of the screen areas
	render_screen_list  m_screens;          // list of active screens
	render_bounds       m_bounds;           // computed bounds of the view
	render_bounds       m_scrbounds;        // computed bounds of the screens within the view
	render_bounds       m_expbounds;        // explicit bounds of the view
	bool                m_layenabled[ITEM_LAYER_MAX]; // is this layer enabled?
	item_list           m_backdrop_list;    // list of backdrop items
	item_list           m_screen_list;      // list of screen items
	item_list           m_overlay_list;     // list of overlay items
	item_list           m_bezel_list;       // list of bezel items
	item_list           m_cpanel_list;      // list of marquee items
	item_list           m_marquee_list;     // list of marquee items
};


/// \brief Layout description file
///
/// Comprises a list of elements and a list of views.  The elements are
/// reusable items that the views reference.
class layout_file
{
public:
	using element_map = std::unordered_map<std::string, layout_element>;
	using group_map = std::unordered_map<std::string, layout_group>;
	using view_list = std::list<layout_view>;

	// construction/destruction
	layout_file(device_t &device, util::xml::data_node const &rootnode, char const *dirname);
	~layout_file();

	// getters
	element_map const &elements() const { return m_elemmap; }
	view_list &views() { return m_viewlist; }
	view_list const &views() const { return m_viewlist; }

private:
	using environment = emu::render::detail::layout_environment;

	// add elements and parameters
	void add_elements(
			char const *dirname,
			environment &env,
			util::xml::data_node const &parentnode,
			group_map &groupmap,
			bool repeat,
			bool init);

	// internal state
	element_map     m_elemmap;      // list of shared layout elements
	view_list       m_viewlist;     // list of views
};

// ======================> render_target

// a render_target describes a surface that is being rendered to
class render_target
{
	friend resource_pool_object<render_target>::~resource_pool_object();
	friend class simple_list<render_target>;
	friend class render_manager;

	// construction/destruction
	render_target(render_manager &manager, const internal_layout *layoutfile = nullptr, u32 flags = 0);
	render_target(render_manager &manager, util::xml::data_node const &layout, u32 flags = 0);
	~render_target();

public:
	// getters
	render_target *next() const { return m_next; }
	render_manager &manager() const { return m_manager; }
	u32 width() const { return m_width; }
	u32 height() const { return m_height; }
	float pixel_aspect() const { return m_pixel_aspect; }
	int scale_mode() const { return m_scale_mode; }
	float max_update_rate() const { return m_max_refresh; }
	int orientation() const { return m_orientation; }
	render_layer_config layer_config() const { return m_layerconfig; }
	layout_view *current_view() const { return m_curview; }
	int view() const { return view_index(*m_curview); }
	bool hidden() const { return ((m_flags & RENDER_CREATE_HIDDEN) != 0); }
	bool is_ui_target() const;
	int index() const;

	// setters
	void set_bounds(s32 width, s32 height, float pixel_aspect = 0);
	void set_max_update_rate(float updates_per_second) { m_max_refresh = updates_per_second; }
	void set_orientation(int orientation) { m_orientation = orientation; }
	void set_view(int viewindex);
	void set_max_texture_size(int maxwidth, int maxheight);
	void set_transform_container(bool transform_container) { m_transform_container = transform_container; }
	void set_keepaspect(bool keepaspect) { m_keepaspect = keepaspect; }
	void set_scale_mode(int scale_mode) { m_scale_mode = scale_mode; }

	// layer config getters
	bool backdrops_enabled() const { return m_layerconfig.backdrops_enabled(); }
	bool overlays_enabled() const { return m_layerconfig.overlays_enabled(); }
	bool bezels_enabled() const { return m_layerconfig.bezels_enabled(); }
	bool cpanels_enabled() const { return m_layerconfig.cpanels_enabled(); }
	bool marquees_enabled() const { return m_layerconfig.marquees_enabled(); }
	bool screen_overlay_enabled() const { return m_layerconfig.screen_overlay_enabled(); }
	bool zoom_to_screen() const { return m_layerconfig.zoom_to_screen(); }

	// layer config setters
	void set_backdrops_enabled(bool enable) { m_layerconfig.set_backdrops_enabled(enable); update_layer_config(); }
	void set_overlays_enabled(bool enable) { m_layerconfig.set_overlays_enabled(enable); update_layer_config(); }
	void set_bezels_enabled(bool enable) { m_layerconfig.set_bezels_enabled(enable); update_layer_config(); }
	void set_cpanels_enabled(bool enable) { m_layerconfig.set_cpanels_enabled(enable); update_layer_config(); }
	void set_marquees_enabled(bool enable) { m_layerconfig.set_marquees_enabled(enable); update_layer_config(); }
	void set_screen_overlay_enabled(bool enable) { m_layerconfig.set_screen_overlay_enabled(enable); update_layer_config(); }
	void set_zoom_to_screen(bool zoom) { m_layerconfig.set_zoom_to_screen(zoom); update_layer_config(); }

	// view configuration helper
	int configured_view(const char *viewname, int targetindex, int numtargets);

	// view information
	const char *view_name(int viewindex);
	const render_screen_list &view_screens(int viewindex);

	// bounds computations
	void compute_visible_area(s32 target_width, s32 target_height, float target_pixel_aspect, int target_orientation, s32 &visible_width, s32 &visible_height);
	void compute_minimum_size(s32 &minwidth, s32 &minheight);

	// get a primitive list
	render_primitive_list &get_primitives();

	// hit testing
	bool map_point_container(s32 target_x, s32 target_y, render_container &container, float &container_x, float &container_y);
	bool map_point_input(s32 target_x, s32 target_y, ioport_port *&input_port, ioport_value &input_mask, float &input_x, float &input_y);

	// reference tracking
	void invalidate_all(void *refptr);

	// debug containers
	render_container *debug_alloc();
	void debug_free(render_container &container);
	void debug_append(render_container &container);

	// resolve tag lookups
	void resolve_tags();

private:
	// private classes declared in render.cpp
	struct object_transform;

	// internal helpers
	enum constructor_impl_t { CONSTRUCTOR_IMPL };
	template <typename T> render_target(render_manager &manager, T&& layout, u32 flags, constructor_impl_t);
	void update_layer_config();
	void load_layout_files(const internal_layout *layoutfile, bool singlefile);
	void load_layout_files(util::xml::data_node const &rootnode, bool singlefile);
	void load_additional_layout_files(const char *basename, bool have_artwork);
	bool load_layout_file(const char *dirname, const char *filename);
	bool load_layout_file(const char *dirname, const internal_layout &layout_data, device_t *device = nullptr);
	bool load_layout_file(device_t &device, const char *dirname, util::xml::data_node const &rootnode);
	void add_container_primitives(render_primitive_list &list, const object_transform &root_xform, const object_transform &xform, render_container &container, int blendmode);
	void add_element_primitives(render_primitive_list &list, const object_transform &xform, layout_element &element, int state, int blendmode);
	bool map_point_internal(s32 target_x, s32 target_y, render_container *container, float &mapped_x, float &mapped_y, ioport_port *&mapped_input_port, ioport_value &mapped_input_mask);

	// config callbacks
	void config_load(util::xml::data_node const &targetnode);
	bool config_save(util::xml::data_node &targetnode);

	// view lookups
	layout_view *view_by_index(int index);
	int view_index(layout_view &view) const;

	// optimized clearing
	void init_clear_extents();
	bool remove_clear_extent(const render_bounds &bounds);
	void add_clear_extents(render_primitive_list &list);
	void add_clear_and_optimize_primitive_list(render_primitive_list &list);

	// constants
	static constexpr int NUM_PRIMLISTS = 3;
	static constexpr int MAX_CLEAR_EXTENTS = 1000;

	// internal state
	render_target *         m_next;                     // link to next target
	render_manager &        m_manager;                  // reference to our owning manager
	layout_view *           m_curview;                  // current view
	std::list<layout_file>  m_filelist;                 // list of layout files
	u32                     m_flags;                    // creation flags
	render_primitive_list   m_primlist[NUM_PRIMLISTS];  // list of primitives
	int                     m_listindex;                // index of next primlist to use
	s32                     m_width;                    // width in pixels
	s32                     m_height;                   // height in pixels
	render_bounds           m_bounds;                   // bounds of the target
	bool                    m_keepaspect;               // constrain aspect ratio
	bool                    m_int_overscan;             // allow overscan on integer scaled targets
	float                   m_pixel_aspect;             // aspect ratio of individual pixels
	int                     m_scale_mode;               // type of scale to apply
	int                     m_int_scale_x;              // horizontal integer scale factor
	int                     m_int_scale_y;              // vertical integer scale factor
	float                   m_max_refresh;              // maximum refresh rate, 0 or if none
	int                     m_orientation;              // orientation
	render_layer_config     m_layerconfig;              // layer configuration
	layout_view *           m_base_view;                // the view at the time of first frame
	int                     m_base_orientation;         // the orientation at the time of first frame
	render_layer_config     m_base_layerconfig;         // the layer configuration at the time of first frame
	int                     m_maxtexwidth;              // maximum width of a texture
	int                     m_maxtexheight;             // maximum height of a texture
	simple_list<render_container> m_debug_containers;   // list of debug containers
	s32                     m_clear_extent_count;       // number of clear extents
	s32                     m_clear_extents[MAX_CLEAR_EXTENTS]; // array of clear extents
	bool                    m_transform_container;      // determines whether the screen container is transformed by the core renderer,
														// otherwise the respective render API will handle the transformation (scale, offset)

	static render_screen_list s_empty_screen_list;
};


// ======================> render_manager

// contains machine-global information and operations
class render_manager
{
	friend class render_target;

public:
	// construction/destruction
	render_manager(running_machine &machine);
	~render_manager();

	// getters
	running_machine &machine() const { return m_machine; }

	// global queries
	bool is_live(screen_device &screen) const;
	float max_update_rate() const;

	// targets
	render_target *target_alloc(const internal_layout *layoutfile = nullptr, u32 flags = 0);
	render_target *target_alloc(util::xml::data_node const &layout, u32 flags = 0);
	void target_free(render_target *target);
	const simple_list<render_target> &targets() const { return m_targetlist; }
	render_target *first_target() const { return m_targetlist.first(); }
	render_target *target_by_index(int index) const;

	// UI targets
	render_target &ui_target() const { assert(m_ui_target != nullptr); return *m_ui_target; }
	void set_ui_target(render_target &target) { m_ui_target = &target; }
	float ui_aspect(render_container *rc = nullptr);

	// UI containers
	render_container &ui_container() const { assert(m_ui_container != nullptr); return *m_ui_container; }

	// textures
	render_texture *texture_alloc(texture_scaler_func scaler = nullptr, void *param = nullptr);
	void texture_free(render_texture *texture);

	// fonts
	render_font *font_alloc(const char *filename = nullptr);
	void font_free(render_font *font);

	// reference tracking
	void invalidate_all(void *refptr);

	// resolve tag lookups
	void resolve_tags();

private:
	// containers
	render_container *container_alloc(screen_device *screen = nullptr);
	void container_free(render_container *container);

	// config callbacks
	void config_load(config_type cfg_type, util::xml::data_node const *parentnode);
	void config_save(config_type cfg_type, util::xml::data_node *parentnode);

	// internal state
	running_machine &               m_machine;          // reference back to the machine

	// array of live targets
	simple_list<render_target>      m_targetlist;       // list of targets
	render_target *                 m_ui_target;        // current UI target

	// texture lists
	u32                             m_live_textures;    // number of live textures
	u64								m_texture_id;		// rolling texture ID counter
	fixed_allocator<render_texture> m_texture_allocator;// texture allocator

	// containers for the UI and for screens
	render_container *              m_ui_container;     // UI container
	simple_list<render_container>   m_screen_container_list; // list of containers for the screen
};

#endif  // MAME_EMU_RENDER_H