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/***************************************************************************

    express.h

    Generic expressions engine.

****************************************************************************

    Copyright Aaron Giles
    All rights reserved.

    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
    met:

        * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
          notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
        * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
          notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
          the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
          distribution.
        * Neither the name 'MAME' nor the names of its contributors may be
          used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
          without specific prior written permission.

    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY AARON GILES ''AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
    IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
    WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
    DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL AARON GILES BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
    INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
    (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
    SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
    HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
    STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
    IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
    POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

***************************************************************************/

#pragma once

#ifndef __EXPRESS_H__
#define __EXPRESS_H__

#include "osdcore.h"


//**************************************************************************
//  CONSTANTS
//**************************************************************************

// values for the address space passed to external_read/write_memory
enum expression_space
{
	EXPSPACE_INVALID,
	EXPSPACE_PROGRAM_LOGICAL,
	EXPSPACE_DATA_LOGICAL,
	EXPSPACE_IO_LOGICAL,
	EXPSPACE_SPACE3_LOGICAL,
	EXPSPACE_PROGRAM_PHYSICAL,
	EXPSPACE_DATA_PHYSICAL,
	EXPSPACE_IO_PHYSICAL,
	EXPSPACE_SPACE3_PHYSICAL,
	EXPSPACE_OPCODE,
	EXPSPACE_RAMWRITE,
	EXPSPACE_REGION
};



//**************************************************************************
//  TYPE DEFINITIONS
//**************************************************************************

// forward references
class symbol_table;


// ======================> expression_error

// an expression_error holds an error code and a string offset
class expression_error
{
public:
	// codes
	enum error_code
	{
		NONE,
		NOT_LVAL,
		NOT_RVAL,
		SYNTAX,
		UNKNOWN_SYMBOL,
		INVALID_NUMBER,
		INVALID_TOKEN,
		STACK_OVERFLOW,
		STACK_UNDERFLOW,
		UNBALANCED_PARENS,
		DIVIDE_BY_ZERO,
		OUT_OF_MEMORY,
		INVALID_PARAM_COUNT,
		UNBALANCED_QUOTES,
		TOO_MANY_STRINGS,
		INVALID_MEMORY_SIZE,
		INVALID_MEMORY_SPACE,
		NO_SUCH_MEMORY_SPACE,
		INVALID_MEMORY_NAME,
		MISSING_MEMORY_NAME
	};

	// construction/destruction
	expression_error(error_code code, int offset = 0)
		: m_code(code),
		  m_offset(offset) { }

	// operators
	operator error_code() const { return m_code; }

	// getters
	error_code code() const { return m_code; }
	int offset() const { return m_offset; }
	const char *code_string() const;

private:
	// internal state
	error_code			m_code;
	int					m_offset;
};


// ======================> symbol_entry

// symbol_entry describes a symbol in a symbol table
class symbol_entry
{
	friend class tagged_list<symbol_entry>;

protected:
	// symbol types
	enum symbol_type
	{
		SMT_INTEGER,
		SMT_FUNCTION
	};

	// construction/destruction
	symbol_entry(symbol_table &table, symbol_type type, const char *name, void *ref);
	virtual ~symbol_entry();

public:
	// getters
	symbol_entry *next() const { return m_next; }
	const char *name() const { return m_name; }

	// type checking
	bool is_function() const { return (m_type == SMT_FUNCTION); }

	// symbol access
	virtual bool is_lval() const = 0;
	virtual UINT64 value() const = 0;
	virtual void set_value(UINT64 newvalue) = 0;

protected:
	// internal state
	symbol_entry *	m_next;						// link to next entry
	symbol_table &	m_table;					// pointer back to the owning table
	symbol_type		m_type;						// type of symbol
	astring 		m_name;						// name of the symbol
	void *			m_ref;						// internal reference
};


// ======================> symbol_table

// a symbol_table holds symbols of various types which the expression engine
// queries to look up symbols
class symbol_table
{
public:
	// callback functions for getting/setting a symbol value
	typedef UINT64 (*getter_func)(symbol_table &table, void *symref);
	typedef void (*setter_func)(symbol_table &table, void *symref, UINT64 value);

	// callback functions for function execution
	typedef UINT64 (*execute_func)(symbol_table &table, void *symref, int numparams, const UINT64 *paramlist);

	// callback functions for memory reads/writes
	typedef expression_error::error_code (*valid_func)(void *cbparam, const char *name, int space);
	typedef UINT64 (*read_func)(void *cbparam, const char *name, int space, UINT32 offset, int size);
	typedef void (*write_func)(void *cbparam, const char *name, int space, UINT32 offset, int size, UINT64 value);

	enum read_write
	{
		READ_ONLY = 0,
		READ_WRITE
	};

	// construction/destruction
	symbol_table(void *globalref, symbol_table *parent = NULL);

	// getters
	symbol_entry *first() const { return m_symlist.first(); }
	symbol_table *parent() const { return m_parent; }
	void *globalref() const { return m_globalref; }

	// setters
	void configure_memory(void *param, valid_func valid, read_func read, write_func write);

	// symbol access
	void add(const char *name, read_write rw, UINT64 *ptr = NULL);
	void add(const char *name, UINT64 constvalue);
	void add(const char *name, void *ref, getter_func getter, setter_func setter = NULL);
	void add(const char *name, void *ref, int minparams, int maxparams, execute_func execute);
	symbol_entry *find(const char *name) { return m_symlist.find(name); }
	symbol_entry *find_deep(const char *name);

	// value getter/setter
	UINT64 value(const char *symbol);
	void set_value(const char *symbol, UINT64 value);

	// memory accessors
	expression_error::error_code memory_valid(const char *name, int space);
	UINT64 memory_value(const char *name, int space, UINT32 offset, int size);
	void set_memory_value(const char *name, int space, UINT32 offset, int size, UINT64 value);

private:
	// internal state
	symbol_table *			m_parent;			// pointer to the parent symbol table
	void *					m_globalref;		// global reference parameter
	tagged_list<symbol_entry> m_symlist;		// list of symbols
	void *					m_memory_param;		// callback parameter for memory
	valid_func				m_memory_valid;		// validation callback
	read_func				m_memory_read;		// read callback
	write_func				m_memory_write;		// write callback
};


// ======================> parsed_expression

// a parsed_expression holds a pre-parsed expression that can be
// efficiently executed at a later time
class parsed_expression
{
public:
	// construction/destruction
	parsed_expression(const parsed_expression &src) { copy(src); }
	parsed_expression(symbol_table *symtable = NULL, const char *expression = NULL, UINT64 *result = NULL);

	// operators
	parsed_expression &operator=(const parsed_expression &src) { copy(src); return *this; }

	// getters
	bool is_empty() const { return (m_tokenlist.count() == 0); }
	const char *original_string() const { return m_original_string; }
	symbol_table *symbols() const { return m_symtable; }

	// setters
	void set_symbols(symbol_table *symtable) { m_symtable = symtable; }

	// execution
	void parse(const char *string);
	UINT64 execute() { return execute_tokens(); }

private:
	// a single token
	class parse_token
	{
		friend class simple_list<parse_token>;

		// operator flags
		enum
		{
			TIN_OPTYPE_SHIFT		= 0,		// 8 bits (0-7)
			TIN_OPTYPE_MASK			= 0xff << TIN_OPTYPE_SHIFT,
			TIN_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_SHIFT	= 16,		// 1 bit  (16)
			TIN_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_MASK	= 1 << TIN_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_SHIFT,
			TIN_FUNCTION_SHIFT		= 17,		// 1 bit  (17)
			TIN_FUNCTION_MASK		= 1 << TIN_FUNCTION_SHIFT,
			TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_SHIFT	= 18,		// 2 bits (18-19)
			TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_MASK	= 3 << TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_SHIFT,
			TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_SHIFT	= 20,		// 4 bits (20-23)
			TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_MASK	= 0xf << TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_SHIFT,
			TIN_PRECEDENCE_SHIFT	= 24,		// 8 bits (24-31)
			TIN_PRECEDENCE_MASK		= 0xff << TIN_PRECEDENCE_SHIFT
		};

		// types of tokens
		enum token_type
		{
			INVALID = 0,
			NUMBER,
			STRING,
			MEMORY,
			SYMBOL,
			OPERATOR
		};

	public:
		// construction/destruction
		parse_token(int offset = 0);

		// getters
		parse_token *next() const { return m_next; }
		int offset() const { return m_offset; }
		bool is_number() const { return (m_type == NUMBER); }
		bool is_string() const { return (m_type == STRING); }
		bool is_memory() const { return (m_type == MEMORY); }
		bool is_symbol() const { return (m_type == SYMBOL); }
		bool is_operator() const { return (m_type == OPERATOR); }
		bool is_operator(UINT8 type) const { return (m_type == OPERATOR && optype() == type); }
		bool is_lval() const { return ((m_type == SYMBOL && m_symbol->is_lval()) || m_type == MEMORY); }

		UINT64 value() const { assert(m_type == NUMBER); return m_value; }
		UINT32 address() const { assert(m_type == MEMORY); return m_value; }
		symbol_entry *symbol() const { assert(m_type == SYMBOL); return m_symbol; }

		UINT8 optype() const { assert(m_type == OPERATOR); return (m_flags & TIN_OPTYPE_MASK) >> TIN_OPTYPE_SHIFT; }
		UINT8 precedence() const { assert(m_type == OPERATOR); return (m_flags & TIN_PRECEDENCE_MASK) >> TIN_PRECEDENCE_SHIFT; }
		bool is_function_separator() const { assert(m_type == OPERATOR); return ((m_flags & TIN_FUNCTION_MASK) != 0); }
		bool right_to_left() const { assert(m_type == OPERATOR); return ((m_flags & TIN_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_MASK) != 0); }
		expression_space memory_space() const { assert(m_type == OPERATOR || m_type == MEMORY); return expression_space((m_flags & TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_MASK) >> TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_SHIFT); }
		int memory_size() const { assert(m_type == OPERATOR || m_type == MEMORY); return (m_flags & TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_MASK) >> TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_SHIFT; }

		// setters
		parse_token &set_offset(int offset) { m_offset = offset; return *this; }
		parse_token &set_offset(const parse_token &src) { m_offset = src.m_offset; return *this; }
		parse_token &set_offset(const parse_token &src1, const parse_token &src2) { m_offset = MIN(src1.m_offset, src2.m_offset); return *this; }
		parse_token &configure_number(UINT64 value) { m_type = NUMBER; m_value = value; return *this; }
		parse_token &configure_string(const char *string) { m_type = STRING; m_string = string; return *this; }
		parse_token &configure_memory(UINT32 address, parse_token &memoryat) { m_type = MEMORY; m_value = address; m_flags = memoryat.m_flags; m_string = memoryat.m_string; return *this; }
		parse_token &configure_symbol(symbol_entry &symbol) { m_type = SYMBOL; m_symbol = &symbol; return *this; }
		parse_token &configure_operator(UINT8 optype, UINT8 precedence)
			{ m_type = OPERATOR; m_flags = ((optype << TIN_OPTYPE_SHIFT) & TIN_OPTYPE_MASK) | ((precedence << TIN_PRECEDENCE_SHIFT) & TIN_PRECEDENCE_MASK); return *this; }

		parse_token &set_function_separator() { assert(m_type == OPERATOR); m_flags |= TIN_FUNCTION_MASK; return *this; }
		parse_token &set_right_to_left() { assert(m_type == OPERATOR); m_flags |= TIN_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_MASK; return *this; }
		parse_token &set_memory_space(expression_space space) { assert(m_type == OPERATOR || m_type == MEMORY); m_flags = (m_flags & ~TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_MASK) | ((space << TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_SHIFT) & TIN_MEMORY_SPACE_MASK); return *this; }
		parse_token &set_memory_size(int log2ofbits) { assert(m_type == OPERATOR || m_type == MEMORY); m_flags = (m_flags & ~TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_MASK) | ((log2ofbits << TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_SHIFT) & TIN_MEMORY_SIZE_MASK); return *this; }
		parse_token &set_memory_source(const char *string) { assert(m_type == OPERATOR || m_type == MEMORY); m_string = string; return *this; }

		// access
		UINT64 get_lval_value(symbol_table *symtable);
		void set_lval_value(symbol_table *symtable, UINT64 value);

	private:
		// internal state
		parse_token *			m_next;				// next token in list
		token_type				m_type;				// type of token
		int						m_offset;			// offset within the string
		UINT64					m_value;			// integral value
		UINT32					m_flags;			// additional flags/info
		const char *			m_string;			// associated string
		symbol_entry *			m_symbol;			// symbol pointer
	};

	// an expression_string holds an indexed string parsed from the expression
	class expression_string
	{
		friend class simple_list<expression_string>;

	public:
		// construction/destruction
		expression_string(const char *string, int length = 0)
			: m_next(NULL),
			  m_string(string, (length == 0) ? strlen(string) : length) { }

		// operators
		operator const char *() { return m_string; }
		operator const char *() const { return m_string; }

	private:
		// internal state
		expression_string *	m_next;						// next string in list
		astring				m_string;					// copy of the string
	};

	// internal helpers
	void copy(const parsed_expression &src);
	void print_tokens(FILE *out);

	// parsing helpers
	void parse_string_into_tokens();
	void parse_symbol_or_number(parse_token &token, const char *&string);
	void parse_number(parse_token &token, const char *string, int base, expression_error::error_code errcode);
	void parse_quoted_char(parse_token &token, const char *&string);
	void parse_quoted_string(parse_token &token, const char *&string);
	void parse_memory_operator(parse_token &token, const char *string);
	void normalize_operator(parse_token *prevtoken, parse_token &thistoken);
	void infix_to_postfix();

	// execution helpers
	void push_token(parse_token &token);
	void pop_token(parse_token &token);
	parse_token *peek_token(int count);
	void pop_token_lval(parse_token &token);
	void pop_token_rval(parse_token &token);
	UINT64 execute_tokens();
	void execute_function(parse_token &token);

	// constants
	static const int MAX_FUNCTION_PARAMS = 16;
	static const int MAX_STACK_DEPTH = 16;

	// internal state
	symbol_table *		m_symtable;						// symbol table
	astring 			m_original_string;				// original string (prior to parsing)
	simple_list<parse_token> m_tokenlist;				// token list
	simple_list<expression_string> m_stringlist;		// string list
	int					m_token_stack_ptr;				// stack pointer (used during execution)
	parse_token			m_token_stack[MAX_STACK_DEPTH];	// token stack (used during execution)
};


#endif